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  Category: Articles » Sports & Recreation » Fishing & Hunting » Article

BIG CARP BAIT MAKING -- Powerful Secret Short-cuts to Making NUTRITIONALLY ATTRACTIVE Baits

By Tim Richardson

+ Why not save yourself thousands of hours of research trying to design yourself a nutritional carp fishing bait, when scientists have done it for you? +

Take a look at a typical 'contents analysis' of the optimum 'pelleted' carp diet and apply this to choosing productive fishing bait ingredients!

Designed by the world's leading fish nutrition scientists and aqua cultural experts, the following has been derived from various sources to produce a typical analysis for use in designing your own nutritionally attractive carp baits.

+ Please note: that these amounts and ingredients appear ideal for carp commercial production growth gains only. They do not constitute an 'absolute bait make-up' for a carp bait and only provide a nutritional reference point for bait makers. (For example 'chitin' and pre-digested proteins / very high levels of amino acids are not significant in these examples.) Also for the chemists, methyl groups / donors…)

The average proportions for optimum carp growth and health, in dry formula feeds, seem to be approximately:

+ Protein 30 to 55 %.

+ Carbohydrate 65 %.

+ Fat 2.5 to 5 %.

+ Dietary fiber 2.5 to 5 % +.

Plus added vitamins within supplements: A, B1, B6, B12, C, D, thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Folate, mineral and trace elements, including: phosphorus 7 % (optimum), Calcium, sodium chloride 0.3%, traces: zinc, magnesium etc.

Special emphasis is given in carp aquaculture, growth production and protein optimization, to studies on nutritional requirements for Cyprinus Carpio L. (Common carp.) Priority has especially been on the study of carp feed amino acid requirement and protein – energy relationships. Energy obtained, and carp bodyweight gains measured over time using specially designed feeds

To determine the optimum ratio of carbohydrate and protein nutrients for maximum starch accretion by carp from feed sources: (This is the point at which optimum energy from food is gained from starch sources, while maximum biological benefits are gained from the protein in food sources using carp body weight gain as an indication of best results; effectively 'sparing protein' from being used by carp for energy instead of body growth and repair.)

Utilization of various forms of carbohydrate sources are used as feed for carp under study. These include raw and cooked starch, under different standard temperature regimes. The 'protein sparing effect' of dietary carbohydrates for carp can then be determined.

These optimum resulting formulas for the highest digestible energy of carp feed utilization were observed: (In K/Cal/g)

+ Prawn Head meal: 15 % to 30 %.

+ Ground Nut oil Cake: 51 % to 61 %.

+ Sesame Seed oil Cake: 50 % to 60 %.

+ Rice Bran: 11 %.


+ Dicalcium Phosphate: 0.1 %.

+ Trace Minerals: 0.1 %.

+ Vitamin Mixture: 0.1 %.

+ Supplemental Amino Acids: (Including Proline, Lysine and Sulphurous Amino Acids.)

+ Crude Protein Content: 30 %.

+ Producing the Highest digestible energy: K/Cal/g : 2.87 %
(In Carp Brood Stock.)

For your bait - making purposes, this translates into a very rough useful ratio guide e.g. :

Protein 25 % to 55 %, Carbohydrate 45 % to 65 %, Plus Fat 2.5 to 5 % (In your base mix.)

It may be useful to notice that in commercial production, carp are fed fat at a rate of 0.5 % to 3 % of bodyweight, daily to maintain optimum energy levels and ratios, among other reasons.


Commercial 'dry carp feeds' are often very low in fat, even 0.5 % to 3 %.

I guess this can give more control when mixing dry feeds for different temperatures, seasons and stages of carp production.

Fat provides over double the energy requirement in the tissues, that carbohydrate or protein normally provide!

I have concluded that this level is somewhere around the optimum basic profile of a 'Nutritional Value Bait'.

There is further information in the book 'Nutrition and Feeding of Fish' By Tom Lovell. (From Amazon or (Used) Ebay.) It is an expensive book !

Tracking down this information is a hobby in itself !!!

Borrowing from my own horticultural / agricultural research into applying land - animal feeds principles to carp baits:

Cost factors are forcing many animal farmers towards maximizing their feed – to - meat yield by applying recent feeds research results. These studies recommend optimizing the mainly carbohydrate feeds by utilizing specific 'bio-active' and enzymic treatments, including :

Bacterial fermentation of beans, seeds and cereals (to break down protective anti - enzymic agents in the beans etc) and to part convert starches to sugars in controlled temperature and duration conditions. And:

Specific enzymic hydrolysis treatments, of cereal based feeds, using amylases on the starches to release sugars (for higher available feed energy content), and in protein feeds (e.g. fish meals for cattle), to pre-digest proteins into amino acids and peptides, using proteases.' This principle has been proven great for top producing carp baits too!

+ The commercial pellet type 'mature - carp diet formulas' often consist of:

25 % to 45 % protein, averaging 38 % of the 'dry' mix.

Analysis shows a mixture of protein and carbohydrate sources, that forms a specific ratio, with protein contents of around 25 % to 65 % for different stages of carp production.

The 'GROWTH FEEDS' appear to have a higher protein content, e.g. 40 % to 58 %, and most utilize fish or crustacean (shellfish) meal; high in proteins and essential fatty acids (fats).

I notice that in fishing bait terms, we now have ingredients in pre-digested extract form that can provide up to 96 % digestible protein content!
(E.g., pre-digested milk proteins, shellfish and fish proteins.)

The carbohydrate content is in fact extremely important; it not only provides energy, but in the correct ratio with Protein and fat, actually MAXIMIZES protein use in the body for growth and repair, avoiding any loss due it being 'catabolized' to generate energy.

Foods like soya meal, maize meal or semolina are high carbohydrate sources, but are low in amino acids. Carbohydrate foods are poor sources of protein, and require protein supplementation.

A carbohydrate food may only be 7 % protein for example, as in the case of maize flour, (6 % to 11 % averages) or wheat semolina, (A 6 % to 14 % average). The fishes body tends to 'deaminate' these low protein foods, and the amino acids obtained are put to uses other than growth or tissue repair; and especially to energy production.

This makes the logical case for you to base your nutritional carp bait upon protein sources of food (like fish or shellfish, or milk derivatives and extracts), and not carbohydrate sources (like wheat or maize.) Perhaps now, designing and making a so – called 'High Nutritional Value' ('HNV,') 'boilies' as complete carp baits makes more sense!

The author has many more fishing and bait 'edges' up his sleeve. Every single one can have a huge impact on catches. (Warning: This article is protected by copyright, but reprints with a link are OK.)

By Tim Richardson. 'The thinking angler's fishing author and expert bait making guru.'

For more expert bait making information and 'cutting edge' techniques see the expert acclaimed new ebook / book:

About the Author
Tim Richardson is an internationally acclaimed carp and catfish bait-making expert proven big fish angler. SEE his very powerful expert acclaimed bait-making secrets ebook / book:


+ (Even used by members of the 'world elite' "British Carp Study Group" for expert reference.) For expert bait making secrets, powerful 'cutting-edge' fishing information / techniques; see this unique fishing bait making / enhancing book /website!

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