Article Categories
» Arts & Entertainment
» Automotive
» Business
» Careers & Jobs
» Education & Reference
» Finance
» Food & Drink
» Health & Fitness
» Home & Family
» Internet & Online Businesses
» Miscellaneous
» Self Improvement
» Shopping
» Society & News
» Sports & Recreation
» Technology
» Travel & Leisure
» Writing & Speaking

  Listed Article

  Category: Articles » Education & Reference » Teaching » Article

Long Term Benefits of Positive Reinforcement vs Negative Reinforcement

By Sensei J. Richard Kirkham B.Sc.

Over the years of tutoring students with behavior challenges, I've noticed a pattern of negative reinforcement by both parents and teachers in an attempt to diminish or stop such behaviors.

Let's review some basic behavioral reactions from all human beings. This includes both adults and children since these are basic behaviors.

Children and adults avoid negative stimuli.

This includes but is not inclusive to spankings, getting yelled at by the boss, or even disapproving looks.

Children and adults attempt to receive positive stimuli

This includes but is not inclusive to hugs, getting complemented by the boss, or even approving looks.

In the absence of any stimuli children and adults will attempt to create situation wherein responses by authority figures or peers is motivated.

In most cases I've witnessed in both children and adults the activity to promote this stimuli tends to be in the form of a negative behavior issue. Again, this applies to both children and adults from throwing paper airplanes to antics at the water cooler at the office.

Why are these behaviors primarily negative?

Let's consider the way we were raised.

I've actually had successful, intelligent parents tell me and I quote one person

"My wife and I don't believe in rewarding expected behavior."

What do you believe my former student will do when he/she feels a need for attention? Do well on a test? No, that's expected. As is behaving in class, in public and basically acting in an appropriate manner in all situations.

I've seen the same attitude in over 75% of the parents who hired me to consult with them over email or tutor their child and it's not the parents fault. Most parents don't have a background in teaching, counseling or psychology They raise their children, in most cases, the way they were raised. Getting the occasional tip from another parent or television. If the technique the parent uses even temporarily hinders a behavior. They feel successful.

For the most part, if the child has no extreme behaviors, the parents techniques raise a socially acceptable child with average goals in life, but at what loss of potential?

Let's look inside the mind of a child through adulthood.

Let's presume he/she has average self-trained parents who understand the benefits of positive reinforcement, but are, for the most part unsure how to execute it and therefore is sporadic at best.

Here's a scenario;

John gets an A on his test. Parents praise him.

The next class John tries hard though he gets a D. Parents admonish him.

John gets another D in the same class. Parents ground him

John gets yet another D parents take away his hand held gamer

John stops trying in the class

John resorts to acting out for attention in that class

As his peers grow accustom to his behaviors John escalates them in order to receive the same amount of attention.

The parents finally have a meeting with the teacher of that class to find out why John gets into trouble in that class.

This can escalate further but generally doesn't. Do you now understand, however, why we act out in a negative manner in order to get attention. We keep the traits in us which are reinforced whether this reinforcement consists of negative or positive stimuli.

Let's now examine some parents who, through classes study or perhaps even buying my book (were they the one's) understand the importance of consistent positive reinforcement.

John gets a D on his test

A compliment is followed by constructive questions

John changes his study habits

John still gets a D

The parents hit a heavy bag, power-walk and release their stress in constructive ways.

A compliment is followed by constructive questions

The parents have a meeting with John's teacher for the class.

The teacher works with John.

John probably does better on the next test.

Regardless of the results John still has his support group and is not alone. Which means I probably won't get the "you're my last hope" call.

Let's carry both these scenarios into adulthood

Primarily Negative Stimuli

John graduated high school with B's and C's He's working at a grocery store. He bags groceries and is a hard worker. He does what he's told at work because he doesn't want to get into trouble. He shows up to work regularly and has had a few raises.

Scenario with primarily positive reinforcement

John graduated high school with A's and B's. He started out bagging groceries. John knew he could do better than that. He worked hard utilizing the same positive reinforcement techniques his parents had utilized with him to improve his self-confidence. The customers, coworkers, and management appreciated his positive attitude and hard work. John asked questions and was not afraid to try or suggest new ways of performing daily tasks at work.

He's now the manager of the grocery store with a very busy schedule as he is taking college courses in the evening.


Though John's character is fictional, the results are not. Self-confidence and a lack of fear to attempt to achieve tasks without negative reprisals due to temporary lack of achievement is a must for the building blocks for both leadership and innovation. Without consistent positive reinforcement the child's chances of realizing this self-confidence to perserveer and to develop and initiate new ideas and methodology is greatly restricted.

Let me conclude with a quote from my book

"Do you want your child to want to do the right thing or be afraid to do the wrong thing?

About the Author

J. Richard Kirkham is a dual certified teacher and martial arts instructor. He has expertise in alternative teaching methods and positive reinforcement methodology. He's written several books in the printable electronic format and has made downloadable videos and DVDs. One of his books he put his heart and soul into is "Tutoring and Positive Reinforcement Techniques and Methodology for all Parents and Teachers" formerly titled "Raising Your Child to be More Positive and More Confident" Feel free to visit Mr. Kirkham's website at or you may email him at
About the Author
J. Richard Kirkham is a dual certified teacher and martial arts instructor. He has expertise in alternative teaching methods and positive reinforcement methodology.

Article Source:
If you wish to add the above article to your website or newsletters then please include the "Article Source:" as shown above and make it hyperlinked.

  Some other articles by Sensei J. Richard Kirkham B.Sc.
My Experiences with the Hawaii Earthquake and What I should Tell You
Aloha everyone from Oahu My family is safe and sound. On Sunday October 15th 2006 at 7:08 AM I was lying in bed when I felt a vibration. ...

Overcoming Fear in a Self-Defense Situation
How do you overcome fear in a self-defense situation? Basically you don't, you learn to use the fear instead. Making it a tool that you shape not allowing fear to control you. All fine and dandy, but ...

Increasing The Power of Your Roundhouse Kick
I've had martial artists and other fighters hire me to analyze their punches and kicks and I've even received a video to analyze a frisbee throw due to my background in kinese, movement education, ...

  Recent Articles
Celebrating Black History Month
by Freda J. Glatt, MS

Our Educational System has it all wrong.
by Morgan F Bryan

The Difficult Job of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Government Decision Making
by Gary Hadler

Happy New Year!
by Freda J. Glatt, MS

Home Schooling Can Be Beneficial. But Are There Disadvantages?
by Nic haffner

A Christmas and Chanukah Play
by Freda J. Glatt, MS

Native American Culture Activities
by Freda J. Glatt, MS

Halloween Activities
by Freda J. Glatt, MS

Long Term Benefits of Positive Reinforcement vs Negative Reinforcement
by Sensei J. Richard Kirkham B.Sc.

America Is Getting Dumber
by The Imaginary Diva

Homeschooling Association: Groups Dedicated to Making Homeschooling Possible
by Mike Jerry

Questions to Ask for Reading Comprehension
by Freda J. Glatt, MS

Teach Your Teens the Value of Money
by Nivea David

Dora the Explorer Cartoon: Teaching Diversity
by Jared Winston

Tips to Support Your Teaching Skills
by Munir Moosa

Can't connect to database