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  Category: Articles » Automotive » Cars » Article
 

Hybrid Cars




By Andrew Sandon

The impact of gas emissions on the global warming is evident. Humanity causes severe weather by a number of ways, including pollution. People have always polluted their surroundings, but throughout much of history, pollution was not a major problem. The warming or;"Greenhouse effect"; we are now experiencing is a result of carbon dioxide we have dumped into the air. It turns clear, odorless air into hazy, smelly air that harms health, kills plants, and damages property. In general, air pollution and global warming results from pouring hundreds of millions of tons of gases and participates into the atmosphere including the major greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane (CH4), the halocarbons (CFCs) and nitrous oxide. Kyoto protocol (1997) introduced strict laws for car manufactures aimed to reduce the impact of gas emission on global worming (Kyoto Protocol, 2005). Car manufactures have been forced to develop new clear technologies to reduce the level of gas emissions dumped into the air.

How they work?
The technological developments do much to control pollution cased by older technology. Various methods of reducing pollution from automo¬bile engines have been developed recently. Examples include new additives to replace tetraethyl lead in gasoline, and devices to remove pollutants from exhaust and make combustion processes more complete. One more alternative sollution is a hybrid car. A hybrid car combines more sources of power: a rechargeable battery and gasoline. Its full name si the gasoline-electric hybrid car, because it is a mixture of a gasoline-powered car and an electric car.The battery is needed to provide extra acceleration power. “When the car is stopped, hybrid gasoline motors can shut off and run off their electric motor and battery; (Hybrid Cars, 2005). There are two variant of a hybrid car: a parallel hybrid and a series hybrid car. The difference is that a parallel hybrid car consistes of a fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to the engine while in the latter, a generator is turned by the gasoline engine. It can charge the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission (How Hybrid Car Works, 2005). The basic components of a hybrid car include: gasoline engine, fuel tank, electric motor, generator, batteries, and transmission. &;Both the engine and the electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time, and the transmission then turns the wheels&; (How Hybrid Car Works, 2005).

How they help the Ecosystem and the Environment?
Hybrids innovative technology is an alternative energy solution which help to reduce the risk of global warming. On the one hand, hybrids reduce fuel emissions because the hybrid engine draws on the battery and not gasoline when accelerating. On the other hand, hybrid gasoline motors can shut off when the car is stopped and run off their electricity.

So called "trace gases" make up the remainder of air's composition, but if cars do not dump CO2 into the air there is no threat of “trace gases”. Most air pollution results from combustion processes. Each time a fuel is burned in a combustion process, some type of pollutant is released into the air, and ruin ozone layer, which protects the Earth from radiation. As a result our atmosphere is heated, and climate becomes warmer. This pollutant forms when moisture in the air com¬bines with nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide released by automobiles, by factories, and by power plants that burn coal or oil. The reaction between the moisture and the chemical compounds produces nitric and sulfuric acids. It also reduces the amount of oxygen that water can hold. The major pollutant is fuel oil, which enters oceans mainly from oil tankers and offshore oil wells. This heated water causes such disasters as tornados and hurricanes. If hybrid technology is introduced, the need in fuel oil will decrease and the negative impact on ecosystem will be minimized.

The Future
The problem is that it is very expensive to produce a hybrid car, and since then Honda has ground production down to near zero. So there is a response to the short-term, but it's just under whelming (Honda Says , 2005). Years ago, Time Magazine claimed that a majority of Americans were willing to pay 50 cents more (in today's dollars) for a gallon of gas if it would fight global warming. Today, it is proved that it did not happened (Overview of Vehicle Compatibility, 2005). Roland Hwang a policy analyst and vehicle technology expert said "This shows what we've been saying all along is true", "Auto manufacturers know how to build cars that emit less global warming pollution. The technology exists today. If Honda can do it, so can the Big Three. The only question is when will Detroit put its engineers to work and send its lawyers and lobbyists back home." (Michaels, 2005). These new Toyota SUV hybrids will use a 3.3-liter V6 engine combined with Toyota's hybrid powertrain, and according to reports will put out 270 hp. Fuel economy is expected to average around 28 mpg, with a range in excess of 600 miles (Shaver, 2001). The Toyota hybrids will be available in a front- and all-wheel-drive version. The AWD versions will feature two electric motors: one to power the front wheels and the second to power the rear wheels. Thanks to this system of twin motors there will be no driveshaft connecting the transmission and the rear wheels which will have the effect or reducing weight and enhancing interior leg room and comfort. The Highlander Hybrid is expected to be the first seven-passenger hybrid SUV when it goes on sale in early 2005.

It's impossible to meet Kyoto's mandates, which start in 2008, but to reduce emission level is not an easy task to solve. But in a time it became apparent that the protocol was wrong. People are increasing their purchases of gas-hogs and buying relatively fewer of the new gas-electric hybrids (Michaels, 2005). Nevertheless, bear in mind the facts mentioned above it would be possible to say that the solution is found. If carmakers change their policy to green car, the level of emission will be reduced greatly. But, this problem has social aspects. Americans used to traditional cars because of their safety and power, etc. It will be difficult to persuade them to buy another models of cars.

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